Understanding Acts chapter 15
What is expected of the elect of God today regarding the laws that were given to national Israel through Moses? Which ones, if any, must be practiced by God the Father's children? Some people would answer that none of these laws need to be practiced. Some believe that all of these laws are still binding on God's people and others believe that only some of these laws must still be practiced by God's elect today.
Are there any solid answers to the many difficult questions about the practice of God's law? Yes, there are easily understood answers to the questions about which of the laws of God must be practiced by the elect of God today. Those who desire to live their lives after the ways of God can easily find these answers, because the apostles recorded them for all who are seeking to do God's will in their life.
In order to understand what the Father requires of his children today regarding his law given through Moses, it is important to remember that the temple worship system existed for about 40 years after the death and resurrection of Jesus. Moreover, during this time many converted Jews still worshiped in local synagogues, as well as at the Temple in Jerusalem and they continued to observe certain aspects of the temple worship system. It is during this time of transition between the old and new agreements with national Israel that we find much of the controversy about the law and its observance.
A QUESTION ABOUT CIRCUMCISION
In the Book of Acts, chapter 15, the apostles are gathered at Jerusalem to consider the questions brought to them about circumcision, God's law given through Moses, and salvation. The apostle's decision about these issues was for their day as well as ours. Their decisions regarding this matter established a concise guideline as to what God the Father expects of his children regarding the practice of his law given through Moses to national Israel.
The Authority of the Eldership
It is important to understand that this meeting at Jerusalem was a formal council of the apostles and elders who governed the congregations of God. This was not just an informal gathering of a few of the elect; this was a meeting to resolve major issues that affected the entire body of the elect and needed to be resolved by those who were in authority.
The authority to govern the church first resided with the apostles and later with the apostles and the elders:
"I tell you the truth, whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven. Again, I tell you that if two of you on earth agree about anything you ask for, it will be done for you by my Father in heaven" (Matt.18:18-19 NIV).
The First Question
"And certain men which came down from Judea taught the brethren, and said, Except you be circumcised after the manner of Moses, you cannot be saved. When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and disputation with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question" (Acts 15: 1-2 KJV).
Is circumcision required for salvation? The reason this question is so important is that it has to do with how a person is supposed to obtain justification and be declared righteous in God's eyes.
The Second Question
"But there rose up certain of the sect of the Pharisees which believed, saying, That it was needful to circumcise them, and to command them to keep the law of Moses" (Acts 15:5 KJV).
The second question before the apostles and elders concerns obedience to the laws God gave national Israel through Moses.
These men who believed in Jesus Christ thought that, in order for the Gentile converts to secure salvation, they had to practice all of the laws that were a part of the first agreement between God and Israel. This is exactly what many people today believe; they feel that virtually everything in the first covenant with national Israel applies to Christians (spiritual Israelites) today.
The two questions answered in Acts 15:
- Was it necessary for a Gentile convert to be circumcised in order to be saved?
- Was it necessary for the Gentile convert to practice all of the laws the Creator God gave to the nation of Israel through Moses?
PETER GIVES HIS OPINION
"And when there had been much disputing, Peter rose up, and said to them, Men and brethren, you know how that a good while ago God made a choice among us, that the Gentiles by my mouth should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. And God, which knows the hearts, bare them witness, giving them the holy spirit, even as he did to us; And put no difference between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith" (Acts 15:7-9 KJV).
Here, Peter refers to the events recorded in Acts 10. Notice that the Gentiles were to "hear and believe." These are very important scripture, because Peter was inspired to document that there is no difference between an Israelite and Gentile regarding the call to salvation and the requirements for justification before God. Peter clearly shows that, regarding salvation and justification, both Gentiles and Jews are equal in God's eyes. Therefore, they must have the same covenant relationship with God.
The Gentiles did receive justification, their sins were forgiven, and their hearts were purified through their faith in the blood of Jesus Christ. Moreover, they did receive the holy spirit without being circumcised. See Acts 5:32.
"Therefore why do you test God, by putting a yoke on the neck of the disciples, which neither our fathers nor we had the strength to bear? But through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we believe in order to be saved, according to the same manner they also believed" (Acts 15:10-11 Para.).
Peter felt that those who wanted the Gentiles to obey the law of circumcision and other laws given to Israel through Moses were trying to place an unbearable burden on them. Again, Peter points out the fact that both Jew and Gentile were saved by the same belief in Jesus Christ.
But what is this yoke that is an impossible burden to carry? Was this yoke a part of the law given through Moses, which these men felt the Gentiles should practice? It seems reasonable to believe this is what Peter was saying. The word, yoke in verse 10 is from the Greek word zugos, which means of bondage. As we will see, this bondage only refers to the laws about justification (the sacrificial worship system), which Christ altered by becoming the perfect sacrifice to take away sin?
When one studies the laws given to ancient Israel about justification, it becomes evident that there was no way for a person to remain in a state of perpetual harmony with God under the terms and conditions of that agreement. Each time a person intentionally or unintentionally sinned they would cause a breach in their relationship with God, and this breach could only be repaired and a harmonious relationship with God could only be re-established when the appropriate sacrifice was offered. And even then, the atoning sacrifice could only provide a temporary repair of the breach between God and the one guilty of violating his law.
Animal sacrifices could only provide for the temporary setting aside of sin. The sin and its penalty was not forgiven nor forgotten; it still remained and awaited the perfect sacrifice of Christ to remove it forever:
"For it is impossible that the blood of bulls and goats should take away sins" (Heb.10:4 Para.).
The yoke that neither the fathers nor the apostles could bear was the sacrificial system of justification that was not able to remove sin and its penalty; therefore, it left the worshiper subject to eternal death. If Christ had not accepted the penalty for the sins of humanity, all humanity would still be in bondage to sin and the penalty of death. But he did die in the place of humanity; thus, he set the fathers (the ones who followed the sacrificial system), the apostles, the elders, and all of humanity free from the yoke of sin and death.
The second reason the law of sacrifice was considered a yoke is that it was very difficult for a person to continually come before God with the proper sacrifice each time they knew they had sinned. Under the new agreement, both Jew and Gentile remain in a constant state of justification, and upon recognition of sin, they only need to ask forgiveness through the sacrifice of Christ; hence, they are no longer in bondage to sin.
In order to more fully understand the yoke of bondage, it is necessary to review some of the teachings of Paul after the decision of the Jerusalem Council.
"Tell me, those desiring to be under the law, do you not hear the law? For it is written: Abraham had two sons, one by a slave woman, and one by the free woman. But indeed he of the slave-woman has been born according to the flesh; and he of the free woman through the promise" (Gal.4:21-23 Para.).
Here, Paul begins to explain the difference between the sacrificial system of justification that the patriarchs and national Israel were under and being justified through the sacrificial blood of Christ under the new agreement.
"Which things are being allegorized; for these are two covenants, one indeed from Mount Sinai bringing forth slavery—which is Hagar, for Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia, and corresponds to the present Jerusalem, and she is in slavery with her children" (Gal.4: 24-25 Para.).
Paul uses Ishmael's mother, Hagar, as an allegory for the Sinai covenant. And depicts those who look to the temple system in Jerusalem for their justification as being in slavery (i.e., in bondage to the sacrificial system).
"But Jerusalem from above is free, who is the mother of us all. For it has been written, be glad barren one not bearing: break forth and shout, the one not travailing, for more are the children of the desolate rather than she having the husband" (Gal.4:26-27 Para).
Those who have accepted the freedom offered by God the Father from heavenly Jerusalem are totally free because they have come under the sacrificial blood of Jesus Christ and are free of sin—justified before God continually. They are no longer slaves to the sacrificial system of justification but they are partakers of a new agreement and freed from the bondage of the former.
"But brothers we are children of promise according to Isaac. But then even as he born according to flesh persecuted the one according to the spirit, so is it now. But what do the scriptures say? Cast out the slave woman and her son, for in no way shall the son of the slave woman inherit with the son of the free. Then brothers we are not children of a slave woman, but of the free woman" (Gal.4: 28-31 Para.).
Paul continues to make an analogy of the bondage of the former agreement and the freedom of the new. Only the free could legally have an inheritance in Israel under the law of God. Moreover, those under the old sacrificial system of justification do not have an inheritance, but those under the new system through the blood of Jesus Christ do have an inheritance because they are truly free.
BARNABAS AND PAUL
It is important to note that, after Paul's conversion, he continued to observe many of the laws God gave to Israel through Moses (See Acts 17:2; 20:6,16; Col.2:16). However, neither Barnabas nor Paul taught circumcision or obedience to the law of God for the purpose of being justified to the Father.
Barnabas and Paul relate their experiences with the Gentiles and tell of the miracles and wonders that were being done among them by God:
"Then all the multitude kept silence, and gave audience to Barnabas and Paul, declaring what miracles and wonders God had wrought among the Gentiles by them" (Acts 15:12 KJV).
JAMES: HIS ASSESSMENT, AND JUDGMENT
After all the apostles and elders had given their opinions about circumcision and God's law given through Moses, the apostle James who was the president of the Jerusalem council gives his assessment and judgement regarding these questions before the council:
"When they finished, James spoke up: "Brothers, listen to me. Simon has described to us how God at first showed his concern by taking from the Gentiles a people for himself. The words of the prophets are in agreement with this, as it is written: After this I will return and rebuild David's fallen tent. Its ruins I will rebuild, and I will restore it, that the remnant of men may seek the Lord, and all the Gentiles who bear my name, says the Lord, who does these things that have been known for ages" (Acts 15:13-18 NIV).
Quoted from Amos 9:11-12.
Through their writings the prophets agreed with what had been said so far, because they had foretold that God would call individuals from among other nations to receive his spirit.
By quoting the prophets, James begins to lay the foundation for his decision regarding circumcision and God's law given through Moses and the edict, which the council wrote that was to be sent to the churches.
Verse 16 holds the key to understanding the edict of Acts 15:
"After this I will return and rebuild David's fallen tent. Its ruins I will rebuild, and I will restore it" (Acts 15:16 NIV).
After what events will David's tent be rebuilt?:
- After God's calling of Gentiles in which Peter had participated. See Acts 10:1-48; 15:7-8.
- During the period of time from Christ's resurrection to the time of his return as King of Kings.
- After Christ's return to the earth, he will restore David to rulership over Israel. See Ezk.34:22-24; 37:24.
It is apparent from the biblical record that God is concerned with national Israel before the return of his Son to rule the earth. See Jer.31: 31-33; Hos.2:16,19; Heb.8:8-13. However, during this age before Christ returns, God the Father is choosing people out of all nations to partake of salvation with the Patriarchs and the Israelites. See Acts 10; Rom.2: 9-15, 28-29; Heb.3:1-19.
Acts 15:17-18 reveal that after Christ returns, God the Father will call other nations in a systematic way and have them participate in the re-established sacrificial worship system at Jerusalem and live in obedience to all his laws until, eventually, all nations on earth come under his rule and authority. See the prophecies in the Book of Ezekiel that show the new temple worship system, which will be administered by the descendants of Zadok.
THE PROPHECY OF AMOS
The prophecy of Amos verifies the assessment and decision of James about circumcision and the law given through Moses and the meaning of Peter's experiences while proclaiming the gospel to the Gentiles:
"For, lo, I will command, and I will sift the house of Israel among all nations, like as corn is sifted in a sieve, yet shall not the least grain fall on the earth. All the sinners of my people shall die by the sword, which say, The evil shall not overtake nor prevent us. In that day will I raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen, and close up the breaches thereof; and I will raise up his ruins, and I will build it as in the days of old" (Amos 9:9-11 KJV).
Amos also speaks of salvation being offered to all nations after Christ returns:
"That they may possess the remnant of Edom, and of all the heathen, which are called by my name, says the Lord that does this" (Amos 9:12 KJV).
The following is a more accurate translation of verse 12:
"That the rest of mankind may seek [the Lord], and all the nations on whom my name is called, says the Lord, who does all these things."
The corruption of this verse must have occurred after the time of the apostles, because James quoted the verse as noted in the Scofield Bible at the Jerusalem Council and based his decision upon it (Acts 15:14-17). There were learned men present at the Jerusalem council, and some of them were hostile to James' view on God's calling of the Gentiles. These men would certainly have shouted him down if he had based his decision upon a reading that was different from that which existed in Hebrew manuscripts. See Scofield Bible quote.
"Behold, the days come, says the Lord, that the plowman shall overtake the reaper, and the treader of grapes him that sows seed; and the mountains shall drop with wine, and all the hills shall melt. And I will bring again the captivity of my people of Israel, and they shall build the waste cities, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and drink the wine thereof; they shall also make gardens, and eat the fruit of them. And I will plant them on their land, and they shall no more be pulled up out of their land which I have given them, says the Lord your God" (Amos 9:13-15 Para.).
James quoted the prophecy of Amos, which can be summarized as follows:
- The scattering of Israel throughout the nations (vs.9-10).
- The restoration of the Davidic dynasty (v11).
- The conversion of all of the Gentile nations (v12).
- The fruitfulness of the land of Israel after Christ's return (v13).
- Israel's return from captivity (v14).
- The rebuilding of Israel's destroyed cities (v14).
- Israel's permanent settlement of the Holy Land (v15).
The prophecies of Isaiah and Micah both lend support to what James had to say about salvation being offered to Gentiles:
"And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people; to it shall the Gentiles seek: and his rest shall be glorious" (Isa.11:10 KJV). Please read verses 1-16 for the context of Isa.chp.11.
"But in the last days it shall come to pass, that the mountain of the house of the Lord shall be established in the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and people shall flow to it. And many nations shall come, and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And he shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks: nation shall not lift up a sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more" (Mic.4:1-3 KJV).
Without doubt, James is referring to the return of Christ as King of kings when he quotes the prophet Amos:
"After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David. . ." (Acts 15:16 KJV).
THE JUDGMENT OF JAMES
"It is my judgment, therefore, that we should not make it difficult for the Gentiles who are turning to God. Instead we should write to them, telling them to abstain from food polluted by idols, from sexual immorality, from the meat of strangled animals and from blood. For Moses has been preached in every city from the earliest times and is read in the synagogues on every Sabbath" (Acts 15:19-21 NIV).
The Living Bible Paraphrased translates verse 21, "For these things have been preached against in Jewish synagogues in every city on every Sabbath for many generations."
The things taught in the synagogues referred to in verse 21 were the laws about idolatry, sexual immorality, improper slaughter of animals, eating blood, and diet.
The analysis and conclusion of James was correct and was supported by all the Council. Therefore, the Council wrote a letter to be distributed as a confirmation to the Gentiles and other converts, then sent men to deliver the letter who could further explain the Council's decision.
"Then it seemed good to the apostles and elders, with all the church, to send chosen men from them to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas: Judas called Barnabas and Silas, leading men among the brothers" (Acts 15:22 Para.).
"And they wrote letters by them after this manner; The apostles and elders and brethren send greeting to the brethren which are of the Gentiles in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia. Forasmuch as we have heard, that certain which went out from us have troubled you with words, subverting your souls, saying, You must be circumcised, and keep the law: to whom we gave no such commandment" (Acts 15: 23-24 KJV).
The Council felt that those who taught justification by works were subverting the flock. It seems that these heretical teachings not only included circumcision but also other aspects of the law given through Moses that the Jerusalem Council knew to be unnecessary for justification and salvation.
"It seemed good to us, having become of one mind, to send chosen men to you along with our beloved Barnabas and Paul. Men who have forsaken their own pursuits on behalf of the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. We have sent therefore, Judas and Silas, they also through word announcing the same things. For it seemed good to the holy spirit and to us to put not one greater burden on you than these necessary things" (Acts 15:25-28 Para.).
THE LOGIC OF THE DECISION
The majority of the converted Gentiles were not living in Judea, so they were subject to the civil laws of the nations where they lived. Because these Gentile converts were scattered throughout the world and the Jews had a hostile attitude toward them, it was impossible for most of the Gentiles to worship at the temple in Jerusalem.
It was obviously impossible for most Gentile converts to follow all of the laws God gave to national Israel, because of who they were and where they lived. In light of this and other considerations, the apostles and elders made their decision about circumcision and God's law given through Moses.
THE ELECT OF GOD
The Father's elect, whether Jew or Gentile, are living under the same conditions concerning the worship of God, because there is no longer a temple worship system. The temple system at Jerusalem ceased being practiced in 70 A.D.. Therefore, the elect are now in the same situation as the early Gentile converts.
The edict of Acts 15 will continue to apply to all of the elect everywhere on earth even after the temple system is re-established at Jerusalem before Christ returns.
THE EDICT OF ACTS 15
After investigation of the rationale behind the decision that the apostles and elders made, it is possible to understand the details of the four major points of the edict.
"Abstain from foods offered to idols and blood, and that strangled, and from fornication; from which if you keep yourselves, you shall do well. Farewell" (Acts 15:29 Para.).
Although these Gentile converts lived during a time when pagan religions impacted almost every aspect of daily life, these people were neither given a special dispensation nor exempted from practicing the laws of God that were necessary for salvation, because this would have been inconsistent with the teachings of the apostles and scripture:
"After being dismissed they went to Antioch. And gathered the multitude, and delivered the letter. And reading it they rejoiced at the comfort in it. And Judas and Silas, themselves also being prophets, exhorted the elect with many words and confirmed what was in the letter. And continuing for a time, they were sent away with peace from the elect to the apostles" (Acts 15:30-33 KJV Para.).
THE FOUR THINGS THE GENTILES HAD TO AVOID
The following are the four specific things listed in the letter from which the Gentiles had to abstain:
- Eating meats sacrificed to idols
- Practicing sexual immorality
- Eating meat from strangled animals
- Consuming blood
In order to understand why these were the only things listed for the Gentiles to abstain from, it must first be discovered what God finds wrong with each of these things. A good place to begin the search is to review the events that occurred while the Israelites were camped at Mount Sinai and Peor.
WORSHIPING THE GOLDEN CALF
At the foot of Mount Sinai, the Israelites broke the agreement they had made with God. Notice that God became so angry that he would have destroyed the entire nation if it had not been for the pleadings of Moses.
"When Moses didn't come back down the mountain right away, the people went to Aaron. "Look," they said, "make us a god to lead us, for this fellow Moses who brought us here from Egypt has disappeared; something must have happened to him." "Give me your golden earrings", Aaron replied. So they all did—men and women, boys and girls. Aaron melted the gold, then molded and tooled it into the form of a calf. The people exclaimed, "O Israel, this is the god that brought you out of Egypt!" (Ex.32:1-4 LBP).
"When Aaron saw how happy the people were about it, he built an altar before the calf and announced, "Tomorrow there will be a feast to Jehovah!" So they went up early the next morning and began offering burnt offerings and peace offerings to the calf-idol; afterwards they sat down to feast and drink at a wild party, followed by sexual immorality" (Ex.32:5-6 LBP).
"Then the Lord told Moses, "Quick! Go on down, for your people that you brought from Egypt have defiled themselves, and have quickly abandoned my laws. They have molded themselves a calf, and worshiped it, and sacrificed to it, and said, 'This is your god, O Israel, that brought you out of Egypt.' "Then the Lord said, "I have seen what a stubborn, rebellious lot these people are. Now let me alone and my anger shall blaze out against them and destroy them all; and I will make you, Moses, into a great nation instead of them" (Ex.32:7-10 LBP).
ISRAEL WORSHIPS BAAL-PEOR
While the Israelites were camped east of the Jordan river at Peor, they repeated many of the same mistakes they made at Mount Sinai: they were having wrongful sexual relations with the Moabite women and participating in the worship of the Moabite god, Peor. It is useful to read both the KJV and LBP translations of Numbers 25:1-5 in order to clearly understand what Israel had done in worshiping Peor.
"And Israel abode in Shittim [Acacia], and the people began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab. And they called the people to the sacrifices of their gods: and the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods. And Israel joined himself to Baal-peor: and the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel" (Num. 25:1-3 KJV).
"While Israel was camped at Acacia [Shittim], some of the young men began going to wild parties with the local Moabite girls. These girls also invited them to attend the sacrifices to their gods, and soon the men were not only attending the feasts, but also bowing down and worshiping the idols. Before long all Israel was joining freely in the worship of Baal, the god of Moab; and the anger of the Lord was hot against his people" (Num.25:1-3 LBP).
"And the Lord said to Moses, Take all the heads of the people, and hang them up before the Lord against the sun, that the fierce anger of the Lord may be turned away from Israel. And Moses said to the judges of Israel, Slay you every one his men that were joined to Baal-peor" (Num.25:4-5 KJV).
"He issued the following command to Moses: "Execute all the tribal leaders of Israel. Hang them up before the Lord in broad daylight, so that his fierce anger will turn away from his people." So Moses ordered the judges to execute all who had worshiped Baal" (Num. 25:4-5 LBP).
"They yoked themselves to the Baal of Peor and ate sacrifices offered to lifeless gods; they provoked the Lord to anger by their wicked deeds. . ." (Psa.106:28-29 NIV). See also Num.25:6-18; 31:1-17; Deut.4:1-4; Jos. 22:1-17; Hos.9:8-10; 1.Jn.5:21; Rev.2:14,
The Israelite's behavior at Mount Sinai and Peor showed their disregard for the foundation of God's laws, principles, and precepts; to worship another god and to commit sexual immorality are abominations in God's sight. Both of these actions by the Israelites violated God's law and displayed a great contempt and lack of respect for their Creator and the agreement they had made with him at Mount Sinai. In Revelation 2:24, Jesus says that these types of sins are the deep things of Satan.
The incident in the wilderness in which the Israelites worshiped the golden calf shows how abhorrent idolatry is to God. But does idolatry affect a person's relationship with God? The first four of the Ten Commandments give instruction on how one must relate to God. Three of these laws are as follows:
- You shall not have any other gods beside me.
- You shall not make a carved image for yourself of any likeness, which is in the heavens above, or which is in the earth beneath, or which is in the waters under the earth; you shall not bow down to them and you shall not serve them, for I am God your God, a jealous God, visiting the lawlessness of fathers on their children, to the third and on the fourth generations of them that hate me; and doing kindness to thousands who love me, and to those who keep my commandments.
- You shall not take the name of God in vain; for God will not leave unpunished the one who takes his name in vain.
These three laws define the respect a person must have for God, and if a person violates these laws, the relationship between the person and God is severely damaged. Moreover, if the violations are not repented of, they will lead to the severing of the relationship between God and the violator of the law.
The Israelites had an agreement with God and they were accountable to him under its terms and conditions. By making the golden calf at Mount Sinai, the Israelites broke the first two laws governing their relationship with God. Therefore, they showed their contempt for the one who had saved them from the Egyptians and made an agreement with them to bless them above all the nations of the earth:
"They made a calf in Horeb, and worshiped the molten image. They changed their glory into the similitude [image] of an ox that eats grass. They forgot God their savior, which had done great things in Egypt" (Psa.106:19-21 KJV).
At Sinai, sexual immorality followed the making of the golden calf and was a part of their drunken feast to their new god. At Peor, sexual immorality preceded the Israelite's worship of the god of Peor. Both of these events demonstrate the destructive effects that sexual immorality has on the character of an individual and a nation. Both are examples of the flesh and spirit-being defiled by unholy relationships with false gods.
There can be no doubt that sexual immorality is in direct opposition to God's instructions for human behavior and his desire and purpose for humans to become a part of his family.
God's law prohibits sexual promiscuity, deviance, and adultery. The immoral sexual acts of the Israelites at Sinai and Peor were considered by God as spiritual infidelity (i.e., spiritual adultery), because they were committed as a part of worshiping a false god. Thereby, the Israelites broke the Sinai agreement, and the law regarding idolatry. The following are a few of the many scriptures which tell of God's great concern for the Israelites and his judgment on them because of their infidelity.
- Exodus 34:10-17: God warns the Israelites not to give themselves to other gods or make molten images.
- Jeremiah 3:1-25: God tells of his divorce from Israel because of their spiritual adultery. He also foretells the time when he will again try to save them.
- Ezekiel 16:1-63: God tells of his blessings to Israel, Israel's infidelity by worshiping other gods, his punishment on them, and his promise to save them out of their wickedness.
- Hosea 2:11-17; 4:1-19; 9:1-17: These scriptures reveal Israel's physical and spiritual infidelity and God's punishment on them for their infidelity.
- Lev.17:7; Deut.31:15-20 and Ezk.6:1-14 all warn of a loss of blessings for committing idolatry.
PAUL INSTRUCTS THE CORINTHIANS
Before the formation of the early church, the Jewish world had been taught for centuries that sexual immorality and idolatry were wrong. However, this was not generally true with the Gentile world; many of the Gentile nations still practiced basically the same satanic worship system that had ensnared the Israelites of Moses' time. This is why Paul instructed the elect (both Jew and Gentile) at Corinth to avoid sexual and spiritual immorality. Moreover, this is why he gave them guidance about when it was acceptable and when it was not acceptable to eat meat that had been sacrificed to an idol.
"Do you not know that the wicked will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived: Neither the sexually immoral nor idolaters nor adulterers nor male prostitutes nor homosexual offenders nor thieves nor the greedy nor drunkards nor slanderers nor swindlers will inherit the kingdom of God. And that is what some of you were. But you were washed , you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God. Everything is permissible for me—but not everything is beneficial. Everything is permissible for me—but I will not be mastered by anything. Food for the stomach and the stomach for food—but God will destroy them both. The body is not meant for sexual immorality, but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body. By his power God raised the Lord from the dead, and he will raise us also" (1.Cor.6:9-14 NIV).
It is important to understand that Paul taught from the law of God, and he said that, although he had the right to do everything that God permits, he would still maintain control of his actions. He did not say that he was allowed to do anything he wanted to in opposition to the law of God.
"Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ himself? Shall I then take the members of Christ and unite them with a prostitute? Never! Do you not know that he who unites himself with a prostitute is one with her in body? For it is said, "The two will become one flesh." But he who unites himself with the Lord is one with him in spirit" (1.Cor.6:15-17 NIV).
The critical point Paul made is that, if a person does something in opposition to God's rules of behavior, this person is in danger of being united with evil spirits.
"Flee from sexual immorality. All other sins a man commits are outside his body, but he who sins sexually sins against his own body. Do you not know that your body is a temple of the holy spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from God? You are not your own; you were bought at a price. Therefore honor God with your body" (1.Cor.6:18-20 NIV).
Paul instructed the Corinthians to flee from sexual immorality and he explained that the physical body of a child of God is in fact the dwelling place of the holy spirit. If a child of God commits immoral acts, they violate the temple of God (the physical body) where the holy spirit dwells. See also 1.Cor.3:16-17; 2.Cor.6:14-18.
Paul's message to the Corinthians was not for them alone, because many of the problems they experienced were common to the other early Christian communities that lived within Gentile nations. Notice Paul's admonition and warning to those at Thessalonica about unrighteous behavior that leads to destruction:
"It is God's will that you should be sanctified: that you should avoid sexual immorality; that each of you should learn to control his own body in a way that is holy and honorable, not in passionate lust like the heathen, who do not know God; and that in this matter no one should wrong his brother or take advantage of him. The Lord will punish men for all such sins, as we have already told you and warned you. For God did not call us to be impure, but to live a holy life. Therefore, he who rejects this instruction does not reject man but God, who gives you his holy spirit" (1.Thes.4:3-8 NIV). See also Rom.1:21-32.
"For I do not want you to be ignorant of the fact, brothers, that our forefathers were all under the cloud and that they all passed through the sea. They were all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea. They all ate the same spiritual food and drank the same spiritual drink; for they drank from the spiritual rock that accompanied them, and that rock was Christ. Nevertheless, God was not pleased with most of them; their bodies were scattered over the desert. Now these things occurred as examples to keep us from setting our hearts on evil things as they did. Do not be idolaters, as some of them were; as it is written: The people sat down to eat and drink and got up to indulge in pagan revelry. We should not commit sexual immorality, as some of them did—and in one day twenty-three thousand of them died" (1.Cor.10:1-8 NIV).
Paul reminds the Corinthians of God's punishment on the Israelites for their idolatrous and immoral conduct. It is important to note that eating things sacrificed to idols, sexual immorality, and idol worship are mentioned together many times throughout the biblical record, because it is through these three methods that evil spirits repeatedly teach people to disobey God.
MEATS SACRIFICED TO IDOLS
Paul urges the elect at Corinth to behave themselves in a righteous manner because they are of the body of Christ. Then, in verses 18-21, he speaks very bluntly about the consumption of meats sacrificed to idols and he leaves no doubt as to the seriousness of such an act and its end result:
"Therefore, my dear friends, flee from idolatry. I speak to sensible people; judge for yourselves what I say. Is not the cup of thanksgiving for which we give thanks a participation in the blood of Christ? And is not the bread we break a participation in the body of Christ? Because there is one loaf, we, who are many, are one body, for we all partake of the one loaf" (1.Cor.10:14-17 NIV).
"Consider the people of Israel: Do not those who eat the sacrifices participate in the altar? Do I mean then that a sacrifice offered to an idol is anything, or that an idol is anything? No, but the sacrifices of pagans are offered to demons, not to God, and I do not want you to be participants with demons. You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons too; you cannot have a part in both the Lord's table and the table of demons" (1.Cor.10:18-21 NIV).
Paul restates what he said earlier in 1.Corinthians 6:12 about the eating of food:
"Everything is permissible"—but not everything is beneficial. Everything is permissible—but not everything is constructive. Nobody should seek his own good, but the good of others" (1.Cor. 10:23-24 NIV).
"Eat anything sold in the meat market without raising questions of conscience, for, "The earth is the Lord's and everything in it. "If some unbeliever invites you to a meal and you want to go, eat whatever is put before you without raising questions of conscience. But if anyone says to you, "This has been offered in sacrifice," then do not eat it, both for the sake of the man who told you and for conscience sake—the other man's conscience, I mean, not yours. For why should my freedom be judged by another's conscience? If I take part in the meal with thankfulness, why am I denounced because of something I thank God for?" (1.Cor.10:25-30 NIV).
Some people interpret these verses to mean that it is lawful to eat meat that has been contaminated by idol worship. Some also feel that verses 25-30 and 1.Timothy 4:3-4 give the elect of God the freedom to eat any kind of meat desired. However, this is absolutely not true. God's law prohibits the slaughtering of animals to idols and forbids eating of such sacrifices.
In context, 1.Corinthians 10:25-26 clearly refers to a person's attitude about what is eaten and not the type of meat eaten. However, God's law only permits the eating of meats fit for human consumption. It is lawful to eat only those species God designated as fit for human consumption and have been slaughtered according to his directions. A good guideline to remember is that something can only be lawful if it is in harmony with God's law:
"So whether you eat or drink or whatever you do, do it all for the glory of God. Do not cause anyone to stumble, whether Jews, Greeks or the church of God—even as I try to please everybody in every way. For I am not seeking my own good but the good of many, so that they may be saved. Follow my example, as I follow the example of Christ" (1.Cor.10:31-32; 11:1 NIV).
Paul was not only concerned about what was lawful, he was also concerned about what brings a person to spiritual maturity. Paul says that mature Christians should carefully consider their actions when they are in the presence of other people to ensure that what is done or said will not give the wrong impression to others or a brother or sister in Christ. A legal act according to the law of God would be unprofitable to a weaker brother or sister if he or she is led astray by a misconception of what the brother who was acting legally had done.
If a member in the Father's earthly family is offended or their relationship with the Father is adversely impacted by one's behavior, even though it does not violate God's law, it is wise to refrain from the offending behavior in their presence. This advice is transferable to several subjects which are in question among believers today. When this advice is followed, it will help promote and maintain spiritual maturity, peace, and purpose within the body of Christ.
ANIMALS STRANGLED AND BLOOD
There are many reasons why the edict of Acts 15 included the prohibitions against eating animals strangled and consuming blood. The following are two of these reasons:
- Many pagan religious festivals included eating strangled animals, which retained their blood, as a part of their sacrificial system.
- Many of the pagans sought to increase or preserve their own life force by the eating blood, which sustains life.
Therefore, the instruction against eating strangled animals and their blood was a reminder that this law was still in force and was a part of the terms and conditions of God's agreement with his elect children (See Lev.7:26-27). A clear understanding of "things strangled and blood" must also include an understanding of the significance of blood in relation to God's law and the sacrificial worship system.
The penalty for violating the law of God is the death of the violator. In order to satisfy the law, God allowed an animal life to be a temporary substitute, under certain circumstances, for the life of the law breaker.
In order to form a new and better agreement with humanity, God the Father sent the Creator God (Jesus Christ) to sacrifice his own life as a permanent substitute for the life of all humans who violate his law.
With this understanding, it is possible to see the sacredness of blood from the aspect of the edict in Acts 15.
The Blood of Atonement
In the Book of Leviticus, there is a clear statement that the life-blood of an animal is given to make atonement for a human life:
"Any Israelite or any alien living among them who eats any blood—I will set my face against that person who eats blood and will cut him off from his people. For the life of a creature is in the blood, and I have given it to you to make atonement for yourselves on the altar; it is the blood that makes atonement for one's life. Therefore I say to the Israelites, "None of you may eat blood, nor may an alien living among you eat blood. Any Israelite or any alien living among you who hunts any animal or bird that may be eaten must drain out the blood and cover it with earth, because the life of every creature is [in] its blood. That is why I have said to the Israelites, "You must not eat the blood of any creature, because the life of every creature is [in] its blood; anyone who eats it must be cut off" (Lev.17:10-14 NIV).
Life is in the Blood
"Everything that lives and moves will be food for you. Just as I gave you the green plants, I now give you everything. But you must not eat meat that has its lifeblood still in it" (Gen. 9:3-4 NIV).
The blood that was shed in the sacrifices was sacred; it was the life of the sacrificial victim. And because life is sacred, the blood that sustains it is also sacred and symbolic of life.
In Deuteronomy 12:20-25 the Israelites were told the following about animal blood:
"When the Lord your God has enlarged your territory as he promised you, and you crave meat and say, "I would like some meat," then you may eat as much of it as you want But be sure you do
not eat the blood, because the blood is the life, and you must not eat the life with the meat. You must not eat the blood; pour it out on the ground like water. Do not eat it, so that it may go well with you and your children after you, because you will be doing what is right in the eyes of the Lord" (Deut.12:20, 23-25 NIV).
God also gave instructions that care must be taken no to eat the blood of an animal when partaking of a fellowship meal with him:
"Set apart for the Lord your God every firstborn male of your herds and flocks. Do not put the firstborn of your oxen to work, and do not shear the firstborn of your sheep. Each year you and your family are to eat them in the presence of the Lord your God at the place he will choose. If an animal has a defect, is lame or blind, or has any serious flaw, you must not sacrifice it to the Lord your God. You are to eat it in your own towns. Both the ceremonially unclean and the clean may eat it, as if it were gazelle or deer. But you must not eat the blood; pour it out on the ground like water" (Deut.15:19-23 NIV). See also Gen.9:4; Lev.7:26-27; Deut.12:15-16; 1.Sam.14: 32-34.
Today, many who profess to follow the teachings of the Bible believe that the things mentioned in Acts 15 do not apply; however, these things are very relevant, because the same basic attitudes that existed during the time of the early church still exists today.
Do people of our day eat things sacrificed to idols, live sexually immoral lives, eat blood and strangled animals? Yes, they do.
Do any of the things mentioned for the Gentiles to avoid exist in today's societies? The answer is obviously they do. They all exist in one form or another. Divorce, sexual promiscuity, homosexuality, and many other types of sexual immorality exist within all societies. Moreover, religious celebrations (e.g., Christmas and Easter) in every nation are rooted in the worship of idols and demons. The source of such celebrations and their sacrifices has been very cleverly disguised over the centuries to hide their true meaning. For example, during the Christmas and Easter celebrations, millions of worshipers eat meals in honor of the false gods represented by these days. See Deut.12:29-31; Jer.10:1-5; Ezk.8:16.
In many nations, the eating of blood pudding, blood sausage, blood bread, and animals which have been killed without draining the blood from them is still practiced.
The concepts Paul conveyed to the Corinthians about the interaction among God's elect, immoral behavior, and false worship systems are just as valid today as they were then; the only difference is that these practices are sometimes very cleverly disguised as something harmless.
Paul instructed the elect at Corinth and others about the law so that they would know what is pleasing to God. Today, true servants of God also teach and proclaim God's law and way of life, a way in which "the called out ones" may grow into spiritual maturity.
Without the foundation of God's law, those who are called by God to become perfect would not have a guide to help them achieve perfection in the spirit. Those who do not teach God's commandments, precepts, and principles, which were not questioned by the apostles and prophets, are deceived by the lawless spirit who deceives the whole world (See Rev.12:9). Those who teach that the law of God has been done away with through the sacrifice of Jesus have not heard the voice of God's spirit, because the holy spirit upholds the law of God and teaches the elect to do likewise. See 1.Jn.2:1-6; 3:7-10; Rev.2:12-29.
The law of God is not burdensome, it is the way of love. Every law is based on the principle of love—love for God and love for one's neighbor. Without Godly love just like ancient Israel, we will also violate the law of God.
THE TRANSITION PERIOD
After the death and resurrection of Jesus, there was a short period of time when both the old agreement with ancient Israel and the new agreement existed together. This situation allowed the elect of God to participate in certain aspects of the temple worship system. When the temple was destroyed in 70 A.D., what remained of the original agreement and relationship between God and national Israel ended.
"In the saying, New, He has made the first old. And the thing being made old and growing aged will soon disappear" (Heb.8:13 Para.).
The following events in the transition from the temple worship system to the worship of God in spirit are listed in sequential order:
1. When Christ became the perfect sacrifice for the forgiveness of sin, the need to sacrifice animals to atone for one's sin in order to become justified before God was abolished.
2. On the Day of Pentecost in 30 A.D., the holy spirit came to dwell within the elect of God. This demonstrated that God had moved his dwelling place and that the new and better agreement that he had promised through the prophets was in effect.
The indwelling of the holy spirit eliminated the need for a physical priesthood to mediate between God and his elect children of the gospel age of salvation, because Christ is now the new High Priest who intercedes for the elect. See 1.Cor.3:16; 6:19-20; Heb.4:14-16.
3. With the destruction of the temple in 70 A.D., all laws that required the Levitical priesthood and sacrifices for their fulfillment were suspended until the return of the Messiah. After Christ returns, animal sacrifices will again be instituted as noted in Ezekiel 45 and Zechariah 14:16-21. The Bible gives few details regarding these future sacrifices, except that they will be officiated over by the sons of Zadok.
AFTER THE DESTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE
In the book of Lamentations, God inspired a prophecy of the destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem:
"And he has violently taken away his tabernacle, as if it were of a garden: he has destroyed his places of the assembly: the Lord has caused the solemn feasts and sabbaths to be forgotten in Zion, and has despised in the indignation of his anger the king and the priest. The Lord has cast off his altar, he has abhorred his sanctuary, he has given up into the hand of the enemy the walls of her palaces; they have made a noise in the house of the Lord, as in the day of a solemn feast" (Lam.2:6-7 KJV).
With the destruction of the temple in 70 A.D., it became impossible for anyone to take part in the temple worship system as required under the first agreement with national Israel. Therefore, all temple services were set aside. This also applies to all of the laws about the operation of a national Israel/Judah. Without the temple and the priesthood, neither converted Jew nor Gentile can legally observe any law that requires the temple and the priesthood for its practice.
The Future Temple:
The prophetic writings show a restoration of the temple worship system will occur before the return of Jesus Christ. Shortly after his return, he will establish the Davidic dynasty again (Acts 15:16), along with his Father's government through which he will rule the world. After these events, a new temple system will be instituted. See Ezk.chps. 40-48.
GOD'S HOLY PLACE TODAY
God's Holy Place (his earthly temple where his spirit resides) was transferred from the temple at Jerusalem in 30 A.D. to the physical bodies of his elect children whom he calls from among all peoples during the gospel age of salvation.
"Know you not that you are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwells within you? If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple you are" (1.Cor.3:16-17 KJV).
"What? know you not that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit which is in you, which you have of God, and you are not your own?" (1.Cor.6:19 KJV).
THE SHADOW OF GOOD THINGS
"For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereto perfect. For then would they not have ceased to be offered? because that the worshipers once purged should have had no more conscience of sins. But in those sacrifices there is a remembrance again made of sins every year. For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins" (Heb.10:1-4 Para.).
These scriptures prove that there was a need for a perfect sacrifice, which was the sacrifice of Christ that allowed for an individual to be totally justified to God the Father.
"Therefore when he comes into the world, he says, Sacrifice and offering you do not want, but a body have you prepared me: In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin you have had no pleasure. Then said I, Lo, I come (in the volume of the book it is written of me,) to do your will, O God. Above when he said, Sacrifice and offering and burnt offerings and offering for sin you do not want, neither have pleasure therein; which are offered by the law; Then said he, Lo, I come to do your will, O God. He takes away the first, that he may establish the second" (Heb.10:5-9 Para.).
Christ's sacrifice provided total justification, canceled the old agreement that required animal sacrifices for the atonement for sin, and established a new agreement between God the Father, Jesus Christ, and those called to salvation.
"By which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. And every priest stands daily ministering and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins: But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God; From henceforth expecting till his enemies be made his footstool. For by one offering he has perfected for ever them that are sanctified. Whereof the holy spirit also is a witness to us: for after that he had said before" (Heb.10:10-15 Para.).
The New Agreement
"For finding fault with them, he says, Behold, the days come, says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah: Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; because they continued not in my covenant, and I regarded them not, says the Lord. For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people:" (Heb.8:8-10 KJV). See also Jer.31:31-34.
"This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, says the Lord, I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them; And their sins and lawlessness I will not remember. Now where there is remission of sin, there is no more offering for sin. Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, By a new and living way, which he has consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his [Christ's] flesh; And having an high priest over the house of God; Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water. Let us hold fast the profession of our faith without wavering; (for he is faithful that promised;)" (Heb.10:16-23 KJV).
This new agreement's terms, conditions, and performance is totally different in many ways from the first agreement with national Israel. Remember, it is called a better agreement not only because of better promises and rewards but also because of better terms, conditions, and performance standards between God the Father, Jesus Christ, and those called to salvation during the gospel age.
THE LAW WITHOUT AND WITHIN
The sacrificial system was used as a schoolmaster to bring us to Christ. Therefore, because this was accomplished by the law, what particular law was the schoolmaster?
"Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us to Christ, that we might be justified by faith. But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster" (Gal.3:24-25 KJV).
Before the sacrifice of Christ, people stood outside the law and tried to measure up to its standards, but they could not because people are physical and the law of God is both physical and spiritual. It was only possible for a few individuals to measure up to the physical side of the law temporarily, but it was impossible to totally measure up to its spiritual aspects until Christ came.
Those who have the spirit of God become at one with God's law, because the law resides within them. The law is a part of their thought process. Notice what is said about the law becoming a part of those whom God calls to salvation:
"For this is the agreement that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people" (Heb.8:10 Para.).
The elect of God are stewards of the law because it resides within them. They are to be a representation of the law of God in action. No longer is the law to be symbolic, because a converted, spirit-filled, child of God is to be a reality of the law just as Christ was.
HOW THE EDICT OF ACTS 15 APPLIES TODAY
The answers given to the questions asked of the Jerusalem council in Acts 15 and the edict that was issued are still valid. But now, the principles of their edict apply to all of God's children, whether they are Gentiles or Jews. Today, both converted Gentiles and Jews are in the same situation in regard to the law of God.
By B. L. Cocherell b4w9